Agenda 2030


Deliberation on Sustainable Development Goals


icon-20140705Deliberation on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda are taking shape and the negotiations on scope and financing of the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) are becoming more concrete and contentious at the same time. Sustainability has been a concern for several decades and has gained greater importance in light of increasing climate warming and continued instabilities of the social and economic sectors at global levels. Two separate UN processes are underway to determine the SDG framework namely the HLPF (High Level Political Forum) and the OWG (Open Working Group) both working on defining and negotiating the world's Sustainable Development Goals. In addition,various stakeholder groups (NGOs, Business, Civil Society, Academic Institutions) and International Organisations have started their own discussions on what issues and priorities should be core features of the coming SDGs.

To be able to agree on a single integrated framework is critical to ensure successful progress towards the definition and implementation of the SDGs. Concrete goals need to be set at national, regional and global levels and concrete financial resources need to be committed for SDG implementation. The issues and themes that will have been identified as being top priorities will set the stage for policy choices concerning sustainable development goals and determine the world's progress.

CSEND, a think tank focusing on the development nexus of trade, poverty, employment and social equity, is contributing to these deliberation through its engagement in both the global, national and regional levels.




Side Event, UNECE 5th PPP Forum
Monday, 26 April 2021


This Side Event was co-organised by CSEND and WAPPP. PPP experts present chapters of a new publication titled “Making PPPs fit the 2030 Agenda”. The research has been undertaken jointly by seven authors, all are members of WAPPP and two are also members of the UNECE PPP Bureau. The intention of this paper is to contribute to the development of PPP theory and best practice and to align PPPs with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The seven chapters reflect the individual authors’ insights into different aspects of the current state of PPP development and areas for policy and practice improvement including: - The need for harmonized actions and - The evolving theoretical developments of PPP and their alignment with the 2030 SDG Agenda. The topics of the presentations will be: - The Need for a High-Quality SDG 17.17.1 Indicator; Evolution of PPP Concepts and Practice; The Emergence of People-first PPP; When Public-Private Partnerships Put People First; PPPs and ESG; Intergenerational Redistributive Effects in Value for People and Value for the Future; Closing Comments .

Yiu, L., Saner, R. & Bardy, R. (2020). Business Ethics and Leadership, Volume 4, Issue 4, 2020 ISSN (online) – 2520-6311; ISSN (print) – 2520-6761

Maintaining and expanding public goods is synonymous to promoting sustainable development but discussions are needed to clarify how policies need to be coordinated to enable collective action on public goods. Collective action for Public Goods will only be successful if all who partake in such actions can gain complementary benefits that would be either more costly or impossible to achieve without the collective effort. Such complementary benefits are possible provided all stakeholders contributing to the public good of social peace and social cohesion cooperate with each other and preserve this and other public goods be they citizens, civil society organizations, all public authorities and all business firms. This concerted effort for a good cause can certainly be coined “ethics in action”.

Raymond Saner, (2021) « PPPs and SDGs, the Missing Stakeholder Is Civil Society”

In A. Farazmand (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance, pp 1-10, Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021;

The SDGs suggest the achievement of sustain able economic, social, and environmental goals (triple bottom line) for each member country of the United Nations. To implement the SDGs, each government is supposed to set its triple bottom line goals, communicate them to their citizens, make the goal setting inclusive and participatory, and provide for means to review and monitor the implementation of the SDGs from 2015 to 2030. The UNECE PPP standard setting process is too crucial for the future of our societies to be left to private sector providers (construction companies, financial brokers) and government offices often short of democratic legitimacy. Without the inclusion of the civil society actors like consumer groups, cooperatives, labor unions, academic scholars, and teaching faculty, the risk of misguided investment decisions and related rent- seeking behavior by private and public sector actors is too high to be left to experts alone, however competent they might be. What is needed is a PPP Observatory which could add information on PPPs that are often missing or not fully reliable. Such a PPP Observatory could support UNECE and other international organizations but also governments and civil society stake holders involved in PPPs. A PPP Observatory could help the PPP-SDG process stay on course and ensure that the implementation of PPPs is aligned with SDG principles such as inclusiveness, participation, and transparency.

CSEND statement by R. Saner, L. Yiu and A. Ajith  on the importance of measuring sustainability of cities.

In view of challenges that countries and citizens face when attempting to create sustainable smart cities, it is of paramount importance to take into consideration how the 2030 agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals can help support the creation of sustainable smart cities. Good governance and innovation policy can help cities and countries achieve the goal of creating smart cities and sustainable human development. One of the ways to help countries and cities achieve sustainable development is the ability to measure whether sustainability has been achieved and if not, what can be undertaken to re-align policy and implementation with the 2030 agenda. The CSEND statement provides a comparative analysis of SDG implementation of cities based on the Voluntary Local Reviews (VLR) presented by cities during the HLPF 2019 in New York.

This article describes the UN Agencies that are based in Geneva as well as the major organisations which represent civil society also based in Geneva. As second step, the authors give an example of the complexity and importance of UN decision making processes exemplified with the attempts to create a universal agreement on the protection of older persons. Finally, a description of the Sustainable Development Goals is listed with possible interlinkages with the divisions of IAAP.

pdf Article

Raymond Saner, Lichia Yiu and Melanie Nguyen, (2019)


This article discusses how monitoring can be used to support the implementation of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with a special focus on measuring their attainment through citizen participation. The article argues why monitoring must be an integral part of managing the SDG implementation process and shows that the measurement of SDG attainment remains vague and incomplete. Countries are supposed to review their progress in SDG implementation every four years, but the method of reviewing is left open even though the first review is scheduled to take place in 2019. In addition, and even more urgent, is the inadequate definition of monitoring methods that countries are supposed to deploy. This article studies the various options currently available to conduct the four-year review and breaks down monitoring into two types: micro-monitoring and macro-monitoring, both of which are necessary to ensure effective and efficient monitoring in achieving

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